What are the food additives?

The Food and Drug Administration of the united states together with the Food Protection Committee has defined the food additives as a substance or a combination of substances,

Apart from a basic foodstuff, that is present in an exceedingly food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage, or packaging. So we discuss about What are the food additives in this article.

The term does not include probability contaminants. This definition includes intentionally also as unintentional additives. Intentional additives are substances deliberately adding to perform specific functions

Whereas unintentional additives are substances, that don’t have any supposed perform within the finishes food.

However become a part of the food throughout some part of production or succeeding handling. Each forms of additives in excessive amounts may be harmful to health.

Functions and uses of food additives

Food additives perform many functions like drying, emulsifying, nut hancing flavour, enriching, firming, flavouring, foam, glazing, food containers and more

The major uses of food additives are as under

What are the food additives?
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(1) In food products improvement of the attractiveness by means that of colouring and flavouring agents, emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickners clarifiers and bleaching agents;

(2) Maintenance of biological process quality, like by the employment of antioxidants;

(3) Facilitating food process by suggests that of acids, alkalies, buffers, sequestrants and numerous different chemicals; and

(4) improvement of keeping quality or stability by the employment of antioxidants, opposing microbic agents, inert gases, meat curers, etc.

Classification of food additives

What are the food additives?
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The over 3,000 completely different chemical compounds used as intentional food additives may be categorised into different groups. The vital teams are given below:

1) Antioxidants as food additives

An inhibitor may be a substance that once added to fats and fat containing foods prevents their oxidization and therefore prolongs their shelflife, quality and taste property. Without them can not be hold on for any length of your time while isn’t turning into rancid.

Antioxidants perform by interrupting the radical chain reaction involved in lipid oxidization. An inhibitor shouldn’t have any harmful physiological result and may not impart an objectionable flavour, odour or color to the food during which it’s present.

2) Preservatives as food additives

Any substance that is capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the expansion of microorganisms is understood as a preservative. It should be a chemical or a natural substance (sugar, salt, acid).

These are mentioned earlier within the chapter on ‘Principles and ways of Preservation’. Sulphur dioxide and sodium benzoate, metallic element and calcium propionate, carboxylic acid and element compounds also are used as preservative

3) Sequestrants

What are the food additives?

These also are called chelating agents or metal enters since they mix with metals like iron and copper and take away them from solution. Traces of metals change state oxidization and additionally cause discolouration,

Rancidity, murkiness and flavour changes in foods and should be removed by chelating agents like ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), polyphosphates or acid.

Calcium and metallic element salts of organic acids. Salt, calcium phosphate, hydroxy acid and also are samples of sequestrants.

4) surface-active agents as food additives

These are also known as emulsifiers and are using to stabilize oil-in-water, water-in-oil, gas-in-liquid and gas-in-solid emulsions.

Besides emulsifiers of natural origin like phospholipid and artificial ones like mono and diglycerides and their derivatives, bound fatty acids and their derivatives and steroid may be used as emulsifying agents.

Synthetic surface active agents, include defoaming compounds and detergents, e.g., propanediol monostearate and monosodium phosphates.

5) Colouring agents as a food additives

These are further arther to an oversized range of food things to form them attractive and tasty. They may be of natural origin, e.g. extract of annatto, caramel, carotene and saffron, or artificial.

Artificial dyes, besides providing a bigger vary in colours than natural substances, are usually superior to the latter in colouring power, uniformity and stability of colour and ar cheaper. Food colours conjointly include C to impart blackness and pigment to intensify white.

6) Buffers, acids and alkalies as food additives

These additives are primarily management or alter the hydrogen ion concentration of foods and have an effect on properties like flavour, texture and cooking qualities.

Acid in food could also be a natural constituent as just in case of fruits, or created in it by fermentation.

Bound chemicals also are further to regulate the hydrogen ion concentration, e.g., carboxylic acid, carbonate, ammonia hydroxide, carbonate, salt, metal change state, acid, carboxylic acid.

(7) Stabilizers and thickeners as food additives

What are the food additives?

These substances facilitate to improve the texture foods, inhibit crystallization of sugar and formation of ice, stabilize emulsions and foams and reduce stickiness of icings on baked product.

They mix with water createt gels and make the food viscous. Gum arabic, agar-agar, gum, starch and its derivatives, gelatin, pectin, any lose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carrageenin, hydrolyzed vegetable professional are samples of such additives.

Gravies, pie fillings, cake toppings, milk drinks, jellies, puddings and dish dressings are some foods that contain stabilizers and thickeners.

8) Nutrient supplements as a food additives

Once foods are process or stored, there also be loss of some nutrients. So as to restore this loss or to supply additional organic process value than what nature could have provided nutrient supplements are additional.

These are primarily vitamins and minerals: cholecalciferol, vitamin B, iron and Ca, iodine , vitamin A vitamin c

9) Non-nutritive and special dietary sweeteners

Sweetening agents are using as substitutes for cane sugar (sucrose). Substances are Producing that are 10 to 3000 times as sweet as plant product. Nonnutritive sweeteners are primarily in the manufacture of low-calorie soft drinks.

They are also additional to low-calorie liquid foods, canned fruit, frozen desserts, dish dressings, gelatin desserts and a few baked products.

Nonsugar sweeteners, besides serving to regulate weight, have created it possible for diabetics to relish foods they did otherwise not be ready to eat. However, use of a number of them has been restricted or illegal as a result of their adverse impact on health.

10) Flavouring agents and flavour enhancers as food additives

What are the food additives?

Flavouring agents and those substances, present or artificial, that ar responsible for the characteristic flavours of just about all the foods in our diet. This is often the most important cluster of food additives and includes regarding 2100 completely different substances.

Spices, herbs, plant extracts (root, leaves, stem, flower) and essential oils are wide using seasoner agents of natural origin. Since the preparation of extraction and essential oils is incredibly pricey natural seasoner substances are being replace by artificial ones.

Flavour enhancers don’t possess any flavour themselves however they intensify the flavours of different substances through a synergistic impact.

Most generally used and somewhat controversial flavour attention is monosodium salt (MSG), the metal salt of the present amino acid, an organic compound extracted from seaweeds and soybean. Ribonucleotides (5-nucleotides) extracted from yeast possess 10 times the flavour-enhancing property of seasoning.

11) Anticaking agents and humectants as food additives

Anticaking agents prevent food particles from adhering to every different and turning into a solid lump in damp weather. These substance act by promptly absorbing excess moisture, by coat ing the food particles to create them water repellent, and/or by diluting the mixture with insoluble particles.

Humectants are moisture retention agents. Their functions include management of viscosity, bulking, retention of moisture, texture retention, reduction of water activity, inhibition of crystallization and improvement or retention, softness.

They conjointly improve the rehydration of dehydrated foods and solubilization of flavouring agents. Polyhydroxy alcohols like propylene glycol, alcohol sorbitol and water pill that are soluble, absorbent substance and moderately viscous in high concentrations in water are using as humectants in foods.

12) Bleaching and maturing agents as food additives

Freshly polished flour incorporates a yellowish tint and suboptimal baking qualities. Each the colour and baking properties improve slowly on traditional storage. However, this method are often in a very control manner by the utilization of certain oxidizing agents.

Benzoyl peroxide is such associate agent that bleaches the yellow colour. Oxides of gas, bleach and different atomic number 17 compounds each bleach the colour and mature the flour.

Oxidizing agents like peroxide are wont to color the color of milk for manufacture of certain varieties of cheese. Bromate and iodate are using in bread doughs for rising baking quality. Starch modifiers, e.g., bleach, oxidize starches to extend there water-solubility.

13) Other food additives

What are the food additives?

There are varieties of food additives whose functions are aside from those mentioned above. These include the following kinds of substances:

i) Firming food additives

These are adding to stay the tissues of fruits and vegetables crisp (firm), e.g., calcium chloride and aluminium salt.

ii) Clarifying agents

These are wont to take away haziness or sediment made by acarophilous deterioration in beverage, wines, beers, etc., e.g., bentonite, gelatin, artificial resins

iii) Solvents

Suspended flavouring agents, dyes and different ingredients.


I hope you may get all the information concerning about what are the food additives, when reading my article. After this, if you got any doubt then i will be able to help you tell me the comments section.

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