What are enzymes?
Enzymes in food are the organic biological catalyst which helps to initiate and control biological reactions in the life processes’. So We discuss about what are enzymes in food in this article.
In saliva Amylase is present so it’s help to digestion or breakdown of starch in the mouth. gastric juice Pepsin is present promotes the digestion of protein. So in the liver the Lipase present and it promotes the breakdown of fats.
There are thousands of different enzymes are found in yeasts, bacteria, moulds, plants and animals. All proteins are not the enzymes but All enzymes are the proteins.
Types of enzymes present in food
There are three main types of digestive enzymes present in food. They are categories based on their reactions they help catalyze:
• Amylase helps to break down of starches and carbohydrates into sugar molecules.
• Protease helps to break down of proteins into amino acids.
• Lipase helps to breaks down of lipids, which are fats and oils, into glycerol and fatty acids.
What is the main function of food enzymes?
When your body needs to transform food such as the starch in bread or pasta into energy enzymes are helps to convert the starch to simple sugar molecules which can be used by your body cells.
Enzymes are specific, and efficient performing typically only in the defined reaction over and over again.
The fact that they are only come from nature means that they act at moderate temperature and pH conditions which make them sustainable alternatives to chemical processing in the food industry.
Enzymes are gradually as catalysts in the following respects
(1) Most of the enzymatic reactions are specific in their nature, substrate and the structure of the reaction
(2) Enzymes are exceedingly efficient; under optimal conditions, most enzymatic reactions proceed at 10⁸-10¹¹ times faster than the respected non-enzymatic reactions.
(3) In the spectrum of reactions catalyzed by enzymes is extremely broad, e.g.polymerization, oxidation, hydrolytic, reduction, dehydration, etc.
(4) Enzymes itself are subject to a range of cellular controls. Even their biogenesis is enzyme-catalyzed.
(5)Many other enzymes are named as adding the suffix-ase to the name of the substrate catalyzed, e.g., urease, that catalyzes the chemical reaction of organic compound to ammonia and CO2.
Important properties of food enzymes given below
i) Enzymes are control their reactions related to ripening of fruits and vegetables.
ii) After harvesting the enzymes, unless destroyed by heat energy, chemicals or another means that, enzymes continue the ripening method, in several cases to the purpose of spoil age-such as soft melons or mature bananas.
(iii) As a result of enzymes enter into a colossal variety of organic chemistry reactions in fruits and vegetables, they will be answerable for changes in their flavour, colour, texture and nutritional properties.
(iv) The heating processes in fruits and vegetables process are design to the only function to destroy the microrgranisms however additionally to deactivate enzymes so improve the fruit and vegetables’ storage stability.
(v) Once their microorganisms are additional to foods for fermentation functions, the necessary agents are the enzymes the microorganisms manufacture.
(vi) Enzymes are also be extracts from biological materials and refined to a high degree.
Such industrial catalyst preparations could also be additional to foods. To interrupt down starch, tenderise meat, clarify wines, coagulate milk protein, and manufacture several alternative Related changes.
Following are the enzymes used in the food industry
Enzymes are being more and more used for the preservation and process of a large sort of foods and beverages companies. Some vital role of enzymes are shown within the table below
|Amylase||Bread baking Mashing, Precooked baby food, Breakfast food, Syrups, Liquefying purees and soups|
|Glucose isomerase||Sugar and starch|
|Lactase||ice cream and frozen desserts|
|Protease||Bread baking Chill-proofing|
|Glucose oxidase||Glucose removal|
Immobilized enzymes are defined as “enzymes physically confined or nativeized in an exceedingly sure defined enzymes used during a process which allows the enzyme are separated physically from the substrate and reuse for product.
Although enzymes are helpful as catalysts in the food process, they will not perpetually be appropriate for practical application.
Conventionally, associate catalyst reaction is meted out in an exceedingly batch method, by incubating the substrate with a soluble protein.
However it’s terribly tough to recover the protein once the reaction, for recycling. Moreover, the presence of residual protein within the processed food could, in sure cases, cause allergic reaction in the process. to beat these issues 2 approaches are attainable.
The primary is that the use of an artificial chemical compound having enzyme-like activity (Synzyme).
The second approach or used to modification of the natural protein by immobilization it.
The following are advantages of immobilized linear unit ezymes are
(i) Recovery and use of protein in possible ways,
(ii) Stability of enzyme is increases
(iii) Kinetic property of enzyme is increases,
(iv) Product is enzyme-free,
(v) Allow continuous operation,
(vi) Price is lower, and
(vii) Bigger management of chemical change power is possible.
Immobilized enzymes are presently getting used to the change of the disaccharide of milk into aldohexose and sucrose, to isomerize the aldohexose from corn starch into lavelous, and in several different industrial food processes.
Finally, Enzymes are the organic biological catalyst which helps to initiate and control biological reactions in the life processes’.
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