The quality of a processed fruit or vegetable product ultimately depends upon the standard of the stuff that’s used to build the product. So we discuss about Quality Characteristics of Fruits and Vegetables in this article.
Most of the fruits or vegetables are marketed as they’re, while not United Nations going any longer processing.
For promoting functions, the characteristics of primary importance are size, attractiveness, maturity, organoleptic quality and freedom from infection.
When an equivalent vegetable/fruit is to undergo process, different properties assume a lot of importance; these are color, flavour and texture. Obviously, fruits or vegetables of poor quality cannot make sure that an honest quality processed product are going to be obtained.
In several countries, there are precise specifications of varied characteristics for products meant for process. So the quality characteristics are importance since they’re associated with the whole yield of a finished product, and are, thus major issues in process.
Quality could be a live of the degree of excellence or degree of acceptability by the consumer. So the quality characteristics of a product is also divided into three major categories
A) Sensory Characteristics | Quality Characteristics of Fruits and Vegetables
Sensory characteristics of quality look (colour, size and form and defects), texture and flavour (taste and odour) that the buyer will assess along with his senses.
a) Look (Eye charm judged by sense of light)
The eye appeal of a foodstuff is a lot of necessary than dependence on style and odour, and should confirm acceptance or rejection while not chamber tasting. Appearance, therefore, deserves abundant thought in food process. It includes color, size and form and defects.
(1) Colour | Quality Characteristics of Fruits and Vegetables for processing
Colour will increase the attractiveness of fruits and vegetables and in most cases, it’s used as a maturity index. it’s conjointly related to flavour, texture, nutritive worth, and quality.
Surface colour is very important for the contemporary market and internal colour for the process. Inexperienced color is indicative of meager maturity in fruits, however it’s desire in a position attributes in vegetables.
Carotenoids play a vital half in the color of canned mangoes, citrus, and pineapple. The red and violet modify fruits and vegetables to anthocyanins, and this must be accounted for in process, since the color step by step passes out into the sweetener or brine utilized in canning.
Certain fruits and vegetables-notably guava, litchi, banana, and broad beans. Throughout process thanks to the presence of leuco-anthocyanin, and this seems to dissent with selection.
Many fruits and vegetables endure speedy browning throughout peeling. Therefore the colour necessities of fruits and vegetables used for quick-freezing dissent markedly from those required for canning.
Since in quick-freezing there’s very little modification of pigment to pheophytin, no marked modification in leuco-anthocyanins, and tiny migration of the anthocyanins from fruit to sweetener.
Colour and look are, however, very important quality attributes in unblanched, frozen, cut fruits, as a result of they’re subject to protein browning once thawed.
2) Size and shape
Size is of major interest to the husbandman because it is directly proportional to the yield in sure crops, e.g., pineapple.
The importance of size and form of fruits and vegetables is usually world organization derestimated. They create necessary contribution to the looks of contemporary turn out and processed product.
Grading of fruits and vegetables into varied size and form classes is sometimes one among the primary steps in packaging and process operation.
Size grading is finished principally to facilitate succeeding operations like cutting, peeling or mixing, to get uniformity within the product, and to supply consumers with the well-liked size.
Shape of the raw materials typically determines the suitableness for process. The scale back losses during mechanical trimming and Handling. The form of the fruit or vegetable should without delay lend itself to such processes.
Choice and breeding of raw materials for form is yet to be tried in most crops. In fact, several tropical fruits are usually of inconvenient form or size. o gift issues of handling whereas process, e.g., mango, papaya, guava, etc.
Size and form are often measured with manual operation (human decidement), straightforward scale, Vernier calliper, micrometers, planimeters and machine that measures weight, diameter and length.
3) Defects | Quality Characteristics of Fruits and Vegetables
Most defects or imperfections are still mostly evaluated by the consumer’s eye, though in some cases instruments could also be used. The presence of defects ofttimes lowers the grade of product that are otherwise of terribly prime quality. Defects could also be caused by
I) Deformities caused by unfavourable environmental conditions.
ii) Insects and microorganisms.
(iii) Mechanical injury caused throughout handling, transportation and method like injury, bruising and crushing.
(iv) Specks and sediments.
(v) Foreign material or the other harmful additional substance.
(b) Texture (Hand and mouth feel judged by sense of bit)
Texture characteristics involve touch sensations. It includes hand feel and mouth feel that verify the standard.
(1) Hand feel
It’s finger feel like firmness (apple), softness (mango and plum) and appetizingness (citrus and grapes).
(2) Mouth feel
It include sensory characters like chewiness, fibrousness, grittiness, mealiness and viscosity. Instruments developed for activity the textural qualities off fruits and vegetables are:
Instrument developed for activity the maturity of sweet corn. It’s also wont to verify the storage life of apple’s.
Instrument developed for activity the tenderness of peas. It determines the suitableness of raw peas for canning.
iii) Pressure Tester
This is often a really light-weight and transportable instrument used for activity the maturity of assorted fruits. Texture of fruits and vegetables may be measured by texture meter, puncture meter and fibro meter.
Additionally, sure physio-chemical tests are used successfully for activity textural properties. These are
iv) Moisture content
Moisture content or the overall solids may be a helpful index for determinative the tenderness of vegetables.
Basic characteristics of style like sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness may be determined however odour characteristics are tough to live.
(B) Hidden Characteristics
Hidden characteristics of quality are those that the buyer cannot assess along with his senses, like nutrient value, presence of damage less adulterants, and presence of toxicant substances.
(a) Nutritive worth
Customers pay very little attention to the nourishing value of the fruits and vegetables. The a lot of nutritious kind might incidentally be most popular if it’s related to one or a lot of enticing options.
Fruits and vegetables are of high food worth. The small print concerning nutrients in fruits and vegetables, their functions and sources of handiness are given in Appendix IV, whereas organic process for additional studies.
Varied chemical compounds are used extensively in fruit and vegetable production. Edible tissues might accumulate amounts of persistent pesticides happiness to chlorinated organic compound cluster even on the far side permissible limits.
These residues might lead to bitter or musty flavour within the canned and different processed products and gift a risk.
(C) Quantitative Characteristics
Quantitative characteristics are thought of as an attribute of food quality. Since it forms a locality of the whole quality analysis of a product, e.g., the finished product yield of a range of fruit or vegetable.
(a) Crop yield
High yields and sickness resistance cut prices of production and process.
(b) Finished product yield
Staple cost per weight unit of finished product is another necessary thought in process. This can be calculated by determinative the number of product yield per weight unit of staple. The magnitude relation of the load of staple to the load of pre-packaged finished
Factors touching fruit and vegetable quality
Not all forms of fruits and vegetables are satisfactory for process. There are several factors concerned in choosing fruit and vegetable varieties for process.
Though high visual quality is fascinating for many process ways, the com position of the fruit in regard to flavour, texture, colour, and organic process worth is of preponderant importance.
Additionally, these qualities ought to be impaired as very little as doable throughout the desired method, e.g., some vegetables can not be dehy drated or frozen attributable to their chemical composition or natural object.
Some sorts have a bitter style once dried, others loose color and flavour, or don’t restructure to even close to their original kind. Varieties appropriate for process should have satisfactory quality each at season and when storage at low temperatures.
The factors touching quality of fruits and vegetables may be classified mostly into 2 teams, i.e., (a) Pre-harvest factors, and (b) Post-harvest factors.
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