Composition of milk

What is Milk ?

Milk a whole, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by the whole milking of healthy milch animals, properly fed and kept, excluding that obtained among 15 days earlier and 5 days after birth. So firstly we discuss regarding the about composition of milk in this article.

From nutrition purpose of view milk, is that the most showing excellent food out there to the world. The body wants over thirty distinct materials in its food provide. Because no single foodstuff provides all of the nutrients but milk provides nearly all.

Composition of milk

Milk provides essential nutrients and is a vital sources of dietary energy high quality proteins and fats. So it contains nutrients like calcium, magnesium, selenium, riboflavin, vitamin Milk B12 and vitamin B complex.

At first the colour, flavour and composition of milk depend on the species of the dairy farm animal, its breed, age and diet, together with the stage of lactation, parity, farming system, physical atmosphere

1. Cow milk composition

composition of milk

Water -87%

Fat – 3-4%

Minerals -0.8%

Protein – 3.5%

Lactose – 5%

2. Yak milk composition

composition of milk

Water – 83%

Fat – 5.5 to 9%

Protein – 4 to 5.9%

Solid content – 18%

4. Equine milk composition ( Horse and Donkey milk)

Water – 91% Fat -1.9%

Protein – 2.5%[particularly caseins)

Lactose – 6.3% (rich)

Minerals -0.3%

5. Camel milk composition

Water – 86.5%


Protein -3.6%


minerals -0.4%

6. Human milk composition

composition of milk

Water – 87.6%

Fat – 4%

Protein – 1.2%

Lactose 7%

Minerals – 0.4%

7. Goat milk composition

composition of milk

Water – 87%

Fat – 4%

Protein -3.6%

Lactose- 4.5%

Minerals -0.9%

8. Sheep milk composition

composition of milk

Water – 80%

Fat – 8%

Protein -5.6%

Lactose -4.8%

Minerals – 0.9%

9. Buffalo milk composition

composition of milk

water – 82%

minerals -0.8%

protein -4.5%

lactose -4.8%

fat -7 to 9% very high fat content

Milk is made of

1) Water: form 87%.

2) Solids: 13%

Organic constituents of milk.

A. Protein

B. Lipid.

C. Carbohydrate.

• Inorganic constituents of milk:



A. Protein

All milk macromolecule synthesized within the duct gland. So milk macromolecule of high constant edibleness (85-95%)

Characterized by:

a) Protein of high biological value as:

• It contains all essential amino acids which are simply digestible, simply absorbed, metabolized.

b) It Contain moderate quantity of non-essential amino acids to decrease stress on body cells.

c) Essential to stay positive balance (nitrogen intake quite nitrogen output).

d) Essential to keep up growth of newborn.

Types of Milk Proteins | Composition of milk

composition of milk




4.Milk enzymes

1. Casein

It’s the most and most dominant milk macromolecule. It represents 25th in human’s milk and 83 in cow’s milk. So it’s protein (Phosphoprotein) of high biological value. The high phosphate content of casein permits it to go with calcium and kind inorganic phosphate salts.

Casein contains 0.7% phosphorous and 0.7% sulphur. Casein is that the only milk macromolecule that not coagulated on boiling. WHO charge of milk macromolecule is charge, therefore macromolecule molecules stay separated from every other because of repulsion forces

2. Lactalbumen

Represent 87% of whey protein. Protein precipitation by full saturation with ammonium sulphate. Rich in cysteic and cystine thus it provide +ve result with sulphur test.

3. Lactglobulin

Represent 13% of whey protein. Protein precipitation by half saturation with ammonium sulphate solution. Rich in cystein and cystin thus provide +ve result with Sulphur test.

4. Milk enzymes:



3.Xanthin enzyme.

4.Base-forming enzyme.



7. compound enzyme.

B – Lipids

Human’s and cow’s milk contain an equivalent quantity 3.5 g,dl, however buffalo’s milk could be a very little higher 7 gm. Easily separated on standing. Responsible for white color of milk

It consists principally of triacylglycerol distributed as coarse emulsion that contains oleic, myristic, palmitic and lipid fatty acids. Also contain little amounts of Phospholipids 0.1% , Cholesterol 0.01%.

C- Carbohydrates

Disaccharide (milk sugar) is that the only carbohydrate of milk. It’s a reducing oligosaccharide consists of aldohexose and saccharose. Human’s milk contains 7-membered disaccharide whereas cow’s milk contains 5-membered disaccharide.

Disaccharide could also be excreted in excrement throughout last third of physiological state physiologically thus it should to be differentiated from aldohexose by osazon check.

Inorganic constituents of milk | composition of milk

1. Minerals

However, human milk contain less mineral parts (0.4%) than cow’s milk (0,8%). Milk made by calcium and Phosphorus that are present in their correct proportion relation for absorption (2:1) in human milk whereas in cow’s milk (1:2) Ca and P are essential for Growth of bone and teeth.

Stability of casein

Milk contains adequate quantity of Na, K, Mg. Human milk contains Na:K (1:2) that is appropriate for the optimum growth of newborn.

2. Vitamins

Milk is deficient in: Vitamin C. type – vitamin C , Vitamin D, Vitamin K. Milk contain moderate quantity of complicated vitamin B complex that are decent for first week of life

E.g.: Pantothenic acid, Riboflavin (gives the whey the green tint in sunlight).

Milks essential nutrients

1. Vitamin = robust bones

2. Vitamin D = calcium absorption

3. Vitamin B complex = energy

4. Phosphorus = strong bones

5. Protein = lean muscle

6. Potassium = fluid balance & blood pressure

7. Vitamin A = sensible vision & skin health

8. Vitamin B12 = Red blood cell formation

9. Nicotinic acid = energy


Finally thus milk is considered complete food. It contains protein, fat, carbohydrates, all well-known vitamins, numerous minerals and every one the food ingredients thought-about essential for sustaining life and maintaining health.

So i hope you may get all the information concerning about composition of milk. When reading my article, you have any doubt above all the releted article then i will be able to help you tell me the comments section.

4 thoughts on “Composition of milk

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